RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION BY STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN THE COLD CLIMATIC REGIONS OF WAYANAD DISTRICT IN KERALA

Reshma K, Linda Rose Jose, Gogi suresh, Deepthy B. J

Abstract


Background: Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a major health problem in developing countries. The incidence of these
infections increases in temperate climates during the colder months of the year. The study aim that to analyze the etiology
of respiratory infection in cold climatic regions of wayanad, Kerala.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted among all age group patients in Microbiology DM WIMS Medical College, Meppadi, Wayanad,
during three month period (May to July 2019.). Prevalence of RTIs was studied by isolating and identifying the etiological agents from
appropriate samples collected from patients. The maximum number of samples were collected during the heavy rainy seasons of June and July
months.
Result: A total of 125 samples were studied, which included Throat swab, sputum, bronchial wash and broncho- alveolar lavage. Out of the 125
samples processed 68 samples showed growth of respiratory pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection rate was noted more among patients in old age group with weak immune status.
Streptococcus pneumoniae was predominant bacteria isolated. Most of the infections were in male patients than in females.
Conclusion: Temperature is related to prevalence of RTIs in developing society. The data available suggest that exposure to cold, either through
exposure to low environmental temperatures , increases the risk of developing upper and lower respiratory tract infections; in addition, the longer
the duration of exposure the higher the risk of infection. The effect of temperature on health varies between different age groups.


Keywords


Respiratory tract infections, Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pharyngitis

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