Dr Susanta Pradhan, Dr Snehalata Mallick


Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathology leading to cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) viz., stroke, coronary artery
disease, and peripheral arterial diseases. Current understanding of atherosclerosis has established the role of vascular
inammation along with the lipid accumulation. Molecular mechanism of vascular inammation elucidates the role of both innate as well as
adaptive immunity in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is initiated by the endothelial injury or deposition of lowdensity
lipoproteins (LDLs) within the arterial wall. These LDLs are highly prone to oxidation or modication and trigger innate and adaptive
immunity. As a result of the activation of the immune response, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes are
triggered. Monocytes/macrophages take up oxidized LDLs and initiate the formation of foam cells that eventually results in plaque formation. Tcells
along with neutrophils have been reported to further promote the formation of foam cells. These inammatory responses are triggered due to
the release of various cytokines viz., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, which now serve as biomarkers and prediction tools
for the CVDs. Understanding of the role of inammation in CVDs has opened up a new therapeutic approach for the prevention and the treatment
of CVDs. Current research and trials are now focused on reducing chronic vascular inammation for the treatment of CVDs. The present review
will focus on the molecular mechanism of the inammation leading to atherosclerosis, cytokines that are being used as a diagnostic tool and the
novel treatment approaches for reducing vascular inammation that are being evaluated in trials for the treatment of CVDs

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